Traps can be extremely effective for problems ranging from insects to large mammals. Home-grown solutions are often effective, but numerous commercial offerings exist for many different situations. Traps are typically non-toxic and environment-friendly. Food plants are left uncontaminated.
Appropriate trap selection takes into account the target pest's habits, food preferences, and even sexual behavior.
For example, slugs and snails can effectively be trapped using ground-level yeast solutions. Earwigs hide in damp, dark locations. Inverted clay pots filled with straw make good hideaways, as do hollow bamboo shoots or the underside of boards. Once earwigs have hidden in such places, they can easily be disposed of using soap solutions, or by burning.
Chemical attractants and pheromones are used to bait many commercial traps, are highly effective, and often preferred by large commercial enterprises. They just work. They are highly specific to the target pest: no other animals are attracted or harmed. For a long but non-exhaustive list of pheromone-based traps by pest, see here.
Finally, live trapping is an effective (and potentially humane) approach to problem mammals. Products like the Havahart® traps are available for squirrels, rabbits, groundhogs, skunks, raccoons, and even for mice. Of course, the old-fashioned mouse trap can also work.
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